Atmospheric makes the receiver produce laser power attenuation, light intension scintillant beam excursion phenomenon. The operating performances of the laser communication, laser range finder systems and etc. are seriously limited. Now the commonly used theory and research methods in atmosphere transmission characteristics are all based on the research results of foreign countries. Therefore, the research on atmosphere characteristics in the laser transmission channel is very important and necessary. The theory model of the attenuation effect caused by atmosphere absorption, atmosphere scattering, and the effect model of atmospheric turbulence caused by strong light, drifting and expanding of beam and so on are established. Based on the analysis of the above each model, the simulations are focused on the theory model of atmospheric absorption and scattering, and on the effect model of the atmospheric turbulence on the laser transmission characteristics. The simulation results show that atmospheric absorption and scattering will cause power attenuation. Atmospheric jitter of laser speckles effect, beam bending and expanding will influence the tracking accuracy and precision ship-swaying alignment. The fluctuation of power by atmospheric turbulence will affect communication rate and bit error rate. Finally the research on the laser transmission characteristics in the atmosphere is prospected.